When and how to plant peas in open ground at home
For many, childhood is associated with sweet, juicy green peas. Growing this culture at home will not be difficult, however, there are certain features that every farmer who decides to enrich his garden with this plant should know. The details of growing legumes will be discussed in this review.
Varieties of peas for planting
Peas (lat. Pisum) is a very valuable product because it contains a large number of vitamins and minerals, which are so necessary for the human body. Growing this plant at home has its own characteristics, and not every variety is suitable for this purpose. Everyone who decides to grow peas in the country needs to know which varieties are most suitable for this.
Did you know? The British love green bean vegetable and use it not only for food. Since 1969, annual pea shooting competitions have been held in Wicham, United Kingdom.
The fruits of shelling varieties are very rich in starch. They make excellent dishes, they retain their shape (do not turn into porridge). Suitable for use in a dry, boiled form, as well as for freezing. When grown, they do not require special conditions, relatively unpretentious care.
This type belongs to sugar grades. Contains less starch than peeling peas. The pulp is very tender, therefore, during cooking, it is necessary to strictly observe the time of heat treatment. Such peas contain a lot of sugar and vitamins. The variety is suitable both for cooking and for eating raw.
It was not for nothing that the sugar variety got its name: this pea contains sugar and many useful microelements. To taste, each pea is very tender, soft and sweet. So that the grains do not lose their shape, unripe clusters are used for cooking. The variety is very fleshy, juicy, suitable for consumption in raw form and for freezing.
Basic landing rules
Pea has its own growing characteristics, which must be taken into account when planting it in your garden. The basic rules are as follows:
- You can plant a crop at the end of April, and some varieties germinate even in the summer;
- pisum requires a lot of sunlight;
- pea root system is well-branched, therefore, the presence of deep groundwater in the soil is desirable;
- to stimulate plant growth, shoots need to be attached as early as possible;
- requires constant top dressing with organic fertilizers;
- the plant is tied up, as heavy clusters pull the branches to the ground and break them;
- preventive actions are necessary against insect pests (aphids, weevils, codling moths) and diseases (peronosporosis, rust).
How to plant peas in open ground at home
If everything is done correctly, then growing peas will not be difficult. When planting peas, it is necessary to pay attention to some features that can dramatically affect the quantity and quality of the crop.
The most optimal time for planting is considered the end of April, when the earth moved away from winter frosts. However, some varieties are acceptable to plant in the summer, then wait for the harvest by the end of the season. It is customary to plant a crop several times a year: from April to July, while observing a ten-day interval. Many summer residents are interested in whether it is possible to plant peas in the winter? And the answer is pleasantly surprising, since this culture feels great in the ground during cold weather, and in the spring it takes maximum moisture from the soil and begins to grow actively.
Since this plant is photophilous, the place for planting peas should be on the brightest part of the garden. The amount of harvest will directly envy of the amount of sunshine, so do not neglect this need. Also of great importance are the "neighbors" and the predecessors of peas:
- Potatoes, spices, cabbage and salad are excellent peas.
- Onions, beans, garlic and tomatoes, which can significantly reduce yields.
It is undesirable to plant a crop where plants grow that leave behind a large amount of organic substances (harmful microorganisms tend to live in them).
Important! The addition of wood ash will not be superfluous. This will help get rid of excessive soil acidity.
Pisum begins to germinate already at a temperature of + 5- + 7 ° C, + 10 ° C is considered the most optimal. Moisture will affect the swelling and growth rate of shoots, so the earth must be constantly moistened (but in no case filled with water). the more light the peas get, the faster the first shoots will rise.
An ideal soil for growing peas is fertile light soil with a moderate moisture index (maximum 10%).As preparatory measures it is necessary:
- dig the soil thoroughly;
- add 25-30 g per sq.m. potassium salt 55-60 g of superphosphate.
Peas are able to germinate without much preparation, however, if you do simple manipulations, the shoots will sprout faster and the plant will be much easier to develop.So, as a preparation you need:
- soak the seeds in a warm mixture of water and boric acid (20 g of boron per 10 l of water);
- dry planting material.
After such simple manipulations, the peas will accumulate moisture and swell, at the same time all harmful microorganisms will die.
Peas prepared in advance, 4-6 cm deep, are planted. The distance between the seeds should be at least 10 cm. Thus, about 10 plants can be placed per 1 m. After disembarkation, it is necessary to fill the holes with earth, being careful not to mix the peas with the earth.
Caring for this culture will not be difficult, but there are still some features. Garter bushes, watering and top dressing are of great importance for the ripening of the crop.
Pea necessarily requires a garter, because the fruit is quite weighty, and it pulls the branches down, breaking them. The tying is usually done in the "grandfather" way: two pegs are driven in (at the beginning and end of the bed), a dense thread is pulled, and branches with fruits are tied to it . You can also use special wire structures (individual) to fix each bush separately.
Watering and feeding
Despite the fact that the legume family loves bright light, the plant categorically does not tolerate extreme heat. So shrubs just need a large amount of moisture. Water the culture daily (8-10 liters of water for every 5 bushes). In addition, it is advisable to add fertilizers with watering (1-1.5 tablespoon of nitroammophoska must be added to the same amount of water). After watering, it is advisable to mulch the soil (needles, hay).
Loosening the earth and weeding
Loosening and weeding the soil is also important, since dry land is not acceptable for plants. After each watering, the soil must be thoroughly loosened and the entire weed must be weeded out. Weed is a bad neighbor for any fruitful crop. To strengthen the stem at the initial stage, it is desirable to hobble all the bushes.
Birds are the most dangerous pest for young peas, because the birds love to eat soft, sweet bean pulp. To protect plants (especially at the initial stage of growth), it is necessary to cover the beds with a film (with holes for air circulation) or a regular net (for example, fishing).
Pests and diseases
The most common pests for legumes are leafwort (pea moths), aphids and powdery mildew.Effective ways to combat the moth and aphid have been developed:
- Infusion of tops of tomatoes. For cooking, you need to take 1 kg of tops in 3 liters of water and insist for several days. Spray plants regularly for both prophylaxis and treatment.
- Infusion of garlic husks and garlic. For cooking, you need to pass 20-30 g of garlic with husks through a meat grinder (crush for garlic) and pour 8-10 liters of water. Insist for at least 24 hours. With this solution, peas are treated for prevention and treatment.
Useful Growing and Care Tips
To get a plentiful harvest, follow the rules:
- Soak pea seeds in a solution with an organic disinfectant;
- the soil should be minimally acidic, and in case of high acidity it must be extinguished with ash;
- beans are planted exclusively in heated ground (average air temperature should be around + 10- + 15 ° C);
- protection from birds is a mandatory procedure, otherwise there is a high probability of being left without a crop;
- disease prevention is much simpler than subsequent treatment (it is better to use organic, folk remedies);
- the plant requires a lot of moisture.
So, if you follow all the recommendations and competently take care of the green pea bushes, a plentiful harvest is provided. Peas are perfect for instant cooking of various dishes, as well as for freezing for the winter. The bush is relatively unpretentious, but you need to carefully monitor the health of the plant and protect it from hungry birds.