The most effective pig fattening at home
Guided by the opinion that pigs are omnivorous animals, some pig farmers believe that the selection of a diet for such pets is a simple matter. In fact, in order to profit from this type of farming, it is necessary to take into account the many nuances and responsibly approach the selection of the diet. In this article, we will reveal the secrets of how much pigs need food and what, so that the pigs quickly gain the necessary weight, and their meat and lard are of high quality and tasty.
Basic rules and norms of fattening
The success of pig breeding directly depends on the increase in live weight, which is gained by a six-month-old piglet: if at that time its weight is 100–120 kg, then such activity can be considered the most effective.
Did you know? Pig's pancreas is made from insulin.
You can achieve this result in a comprehensive way - proper care and balanced nutrition.Drawing up a nutritious diet for pigs requires taking into account many nuances: the pig farmer must clearly know the rules that must be followed when drawing up such a wayward menu, as well as the norms of fattening.
- Make sure your diet is varied. The mistake of pig farmers on large farms is that the feed there, as a rule, is bought in bulk and pigs are fed mainly with feed. This food can not be called balanced.
- Specify the features of assimilation of different types of food in the stomachs of boars, so as not to overfeed them with food that is hard to digest and digest.
- Decide which breed of pig you will raise: meat, meat-greasy or greasy. The type of breed determines the method of feeding.
- You cannot feed pigs for slaughter and breeding stock equally. For the latter, you need to choose a healthy nutritious diet. If feeding of breeding sows and boars will require additional costs, do not skimp, because it is from these pigs that your future profit depends. Experienced pig farmers recommend a monthly dietary table for sows.
- Separately, you need to create a menu for little pigs, especially to suckers and those that have just been taken away from the sow: their stomachs are extremely vulnerable at this time, and it is easy to harm the piglet with an improperly organized diet.
- Experienced pig farmers agree that fattening should start in the spring, because the pig menu will include not only the food that the owner offers, but also all the greens that grow in the aviary of pigs. Accordingly, they will receive the necessary vitamin and mineral components with their own food.
- Do not save: you can’t feed pigs for lunch with morning residues, or in the evening with lunch.
- The pig’s stomach and the body as a whole can be seriously affected by large or hot food. Therefore, the vegetable, grain and vegetable components of dishes before feeding must be crushed, and hot - cool.
- With proper balanced nutrition at home, the weight gain of a piglet is 600-750 g per day. To achieve such results, subject to all norms of fattening. As for the conversion of food, its nutritional value should ideally be 37.5 MJ OE / 1 kg of weight gain, that is, in order to gain 1 kg, the pig should eat 2.9 kg of food. More information on the norms of feeding will be described in the section "How to make a diet of fattening at home."
Important! When determining the norms of feeding, it is necessary to take into account the characteristics of the pig breed, age criteria, season and sex of the pet.
Depending on what kind of pig product you want to get, different pig feeding technologies are distinguished. We will tell you more about each.
Meat technology is divided into dry and wet type. Of course, it is easier to resort to dry, because feed is served to pigs in a dry form, without heat treatment. The menus are made up of cereal mixtures combined with herbal flour. The ease of preparation of such a dish is an impeccable plus, but there is also a minus: dry nutrition can provoke constipation in animals.Therefore, this type should go in combination with wet, the basis of which is mishmash - a mixture of vegetable, grain, herbal, potato components. You can also add waste from meat and fish, pea fruit, cake.
Important! The portions from which you started the fattening should increase by 80% at the final stage.
To greasy condition
Greasy feeding technology is being introduced in order to obtain high-quality fat. A pig is considered a greasy pig, out of 200 kg of mass, about 60% of fat is obtained, while the thickness of fat on the ridge should be from 8 to 10 cm. Piglets with a weight exceeding 100 kg, as well as sows and boars that have become unsuitable for breeding. The feeding period is about 90-100 days after selection. During this time, the pig should gain another 50-60% of the weight.
Since the goal of introducing this technology is to obtain high-quality bacon, which belongs to expensive products, the cost of feeding will cost the farmer expensive. This technology will give the highest and fastest effect if applied to precocious bacon breeds of pigs. Feeding is divided into 2 periods. In the 1st piglet gives 400 g of growth per day.
It is necessary to ensure that the daily protein norms are 90 g. At this stage, its diet includes components from millet, barley, beans, meat and fish waste. At the 2nd stage, the growth is already 600 g. The technology is similar to that at the 1st stage, but the food should not contain oilcake, fish additives, soybeans, since such components can ruin the quality and taste of meat. It is also necessary to reduce the daily amount of protein by 10%.
Important! To get high-quality bacon, you need to take care not only of food, but also of a pig’s healthy lifestyle: it must be active. In the summer, pigs must live in a spacious enclosure where they can move enough, and in winter they take walks. Pigs must be covered at least 1.5 km.
At the initial stage, pigs need to be provided with a sufficient amount of protein food, that is, legumes and grain feeds, oilcake, bran. Such a diet is relevant for 1 month.
From the 2nd month of fattening, voluminous foods, which should consist of their silage, root crops, hay, and concentrates (with a nutritional value of 60%), begin to be introduced into the menu. Instead, the amount of feed consumed in the first step is reduced.
Did you know? A pig can drink 14 liters of water in one day.
This period begins about a month and a half before the slaughter. They begin to feed pigs with concentrates with a nutritional level of 80%, as well as products that contribute to improving the quality of meat, for example, peas, barley. Juicy and roughage must be reduced.
Types of feed
Food for fattening pigs at home is classified according to the criteria of nutrition and benefits for pigs of various species. More details about each of them are given below.
This subgroup includes components that literally charge the pig's body with energy. They do not contain crude fiber. The need of animals for concentrated feeds is determined by their productivity: its increase automatically increases the need for concentrates.
A portion of concentrated food can be composed of the following components:
- Barley. This cereal contains a high percentage of protein (85%) and is characterized by good absorption (90% of the grain is digested). The only minus of such food is that it is poor in mineral components. 40–65% of barley is allowed in the menu of piglets, regardless of their age.
- Corn. It enriches the animal’s body with organic substances, carbohydrates, and fats, but it contains little protein. Experienced pig farmers are advised to stop feeding corn before slaughtering, as this grain crop can negatively affect the quality of meat and fat.
- Oats, the grain of which is rich in fiber and fat. 1 kg contains about 85 g of protein. But to feed pigs with one grain of oats can be fraught with a decrease in the quality of fat, so it is recommended to "serve" in combination with other types of crops.
- Peas. It will provide the body of pigs with protein in a proportion of up to 200 g per 1 kg. But animals should only eat peas when cooked. It can be used to feed pigs of all age categories.
- Soya. This product is an energizer for the animal's body due to the content of oils (about 20% of the total) and proteins (20-30% in the composition) in its composition. But soy can be fed to pigs only after heat treatment. In its raw form, it contains ingredients that can adversely affect the body of animals, in particular, prevent the breakdown of proteins.
- Sweet lupine, which supplies piglets with proteins.
Great for feeding pigs at home. They are recommended to be served in combination with concentrates and protein foods. The following ingredients can be included in the diet:
- Beets, both fodder and sweet (about 25-30% of the menu). Both species are powerful vitamin and mineral complexes. Moreover, beets are a favorite treat of pigs. Digest this root vegetable is not worth it, because it loses its useful properties. Before serving, it should be cleaned and chopped.
- Potato. Served only after cooking to get rid of solanine, which goes into the water, so it needs to be drained.
- Carrots that enrich the animal’s body with carotene. It is especially useful for lactating and pregnant sows, sucking pigs and weaners. The vitamins and minerals contained in its composition ensure the correct development and intensive growth of the piglet.
Did you know? In some cases, a pig can replace a dog, which is associated with its well-developed sense of smell: at customs, these animals are the best helpers during drug searches.
These feeds are especially useful for fattening young animals and sows, as they are saturated sources of vitamins, minerals and nutrients. The best way to introduce into the diet is a comprehensive diet: greens plus concentrates. This type includes:
- nettle (must be steamed);
- beet tops;
Enrich the pork diet and food waste, in particular:
- fruit and vegetable peelings;
- fish and meat leftovers;
- milk washings.
Important! Before adding food waste to the pork menu, make sure that it is not washed with chemicals.
Having heard this word, pig farmers often think that it will be about premixes and other additives. Of course, they can and should be consumed, but you can also use other types of additives, for example:
- Acorns, both raw and boiled. The daily rate for one pig should not exceed 2 kg. It should be remembered that acorns can provoke constipation in the animal, therefore it is forbidden to introduce them into the diet of pregnant sows and suckling pigs.
- Mushrooms. Promote good digestion. Serve only boiled. As an option, worms that have matured are suitable.
- Chalk, red clay, turf, charcoalthat can be introduced already in the 1st month of life of the pig. These supplements will supply his body with the missing vitamin-mineral substances.
- Cooking salt. It is important for establishing the work of the stomach.
- Biological additives and premixes, which will help improve the animal’s appetite, accelerate its growth and increase productivity.
This subgroup includes the following products:
- Dairy It is recommended to apply moderately: for the entire period of feeding per 1 pig, 10 liters of milk are allocated, most of which should be allocated to the period of fattening of young animals. This measure does not apply to whey and buttermilk, which can be added to animal food continuously. Dairy products will enrich pigs with protein, sugar and healthy vitamins.
- Fish waste. These include minced fish, flour, weed and non-food fish. These products are designed to increase the productivity of pig farming. But you can not feed them pigs before slaughter in order to avoid obtaining pork with the aroma of fish. If you purchased salted fish products for feeding, you must soak them at least a day before use.
- Meat waste.
Important! Meat waste can only be added in carefully boiled form.
How to make a fattening diet at home
A nutritious diet for raising pigs for slaughter is easy to make at home.
Up to 5 months
The 1st month of life of piglets is the easiest for the pig farmer, because he does not need to think about what to feed the small animals, how to cook food for them: they feed on mother's milk. But since every day the appetite of suckers is growing, it is necessary to gradually introduce vitamins and premixes. You can start already on the 3rd day after farrowing, and on the 5th - you can even breed premix in cow's milk. Weekly piglets do not disdain porridge.From the 10th day you can begin to introduce pea and bean tops, soft hay into the diet. Weaned piglets are fed with whole milk substitutes. It is contraindicated to introduce sunflower seeds, onions, bread, pumpkin, fish and meat waste into the diet of monthly pigs.
Important! It is necessary to feed healthy piglets, whose age is less than 2 months, 5-6 times a day. Gilts are transferred to 3 meals a day.
More to figure out the diet of piglets will help the table:
|Age group||The amount of feed per day|
|5 to 10 days||Enough 0.5 liters of mother's milk, 50 g of cow's milk. It is recommended to add 2 g of table salt and 3 g of bone meal to cow's milk.|
|11 to 20 days||It will take already 750 g of sow milk, 150 g - from a cow. You can enter in the diet up to 50 g of roasted barley grain, as well as a mash of concentrates (50 g) and juicy feed (chopped carrots, potatoes) - up to 30 g. The amount of table salt should be increased by 1 g, the rate of bone meal should not be changed (3 g), add herbal flour (10 g).|
|From 20 to 30 days||The dose of mother's milk decreases by 50 g (up to 700 g), and the cow's norm increases by 250 g (up to 400 g). Fresh reverse (150 g) is introduced into the menu. The composition also includes 50 g of barley, 100 g of concentrates, 60 g of succulent feed. The dose of herbal flour is doubled, and table salt should be given already 4 g, bone meal - 5 g.|
|From 31 to 40 days||The amount of sow's milk is reduced by another 50 g, and the cow's norm is 300 g. The return reaches 350 g, concentrates - 200 g, a portion of succulent feed is similar. The amount of herbal flour is doubled, table salt, bone meal and barley are respectively 4, 5, and 50 g.|
|41 to 50 days||Minus 50 g (550 g) of breast milk, cow is halved (150 g). A portion of dummy is 450 g, barley is 100 g, concentrates are 300 g, succulent feed is 250 g, grass meal is 60 g, table salt is 5 g, bone meal is 10 g.|
|51 to 60 days||Cow's milk is excluded from the diet, and a piglet can receive 450 g of milk from a sow. A portion of skim milk grows up to 700 g, concentrates and succulent feeds - up to 550 g, grass meal - up to 80 g, table salt - up to 10 g, bone meal - up to 15 g. A portion of barley - 100 g.|
Piglets at the age of 2 months are called gilts, and they go into the nursery phase. It is best to select pigs for fattening in the summer, because during this period there are quite different types of food, in addition, the animals themselves can find than eat.In gilts, the skeletal system is actively developing, muscles are growing, so their nutrition should be especially balanced. The diet includes mixtures of concentrates, chopped herbs, root vegetables and vegetables. It is recommended to give grass and tops, both raw and steamed.
Important! Cow's milk and mother's for piglets are interchangeable. The table shows the norms for a day, either this or that. That is, the lack of pork milk can be compensated for by cow.
Suitable mixes of steamed grass, potatoes and dry feed. The daily norm of food for gilts is about 12 kg. It can be adjusted depending on the weight of the animal. In the diet, you can enter barley, semolina, oatmeal, rice, pearl barley, flour, animal feed, which are rich in amino acids.
Up to 7 months
At the age of 5 months, pigs are transferred to complete fattening. Until this time, it’s worth determining for what exactly you are fattening a pig: for lard or meat. In fattening, meat pigs give preference to protein feed, in fattening greasy - carbohydrate. The menu of piglets consists of concentrates (50–70%), vegetables and root crops (approximately 20%), 5% of greens and animal feed, fish and meat waste.
Important! Make sure that piglets do not eat from the tanks of adult pigs.
Check the table for the daily allowable amount of feed for pigs.
|Body mass||Feed amount|
|20 to 30 kg||The diet consists of 1-2 kg of concentrated feed. Vegetables and root crops (potatoes, beets, waste) - about 2-3 kg, hay flour - 200-300 g, animal feed - 50 g, salt - 14 g, chalk - 5 g.|
|30 to 40 kg||Ingredients: potatoes - 3–3.5 kg, concentrates - 1.1–2 kg, the same portion of hay flour and animal feed, the amount of salt and chalk increases by 1 g.|
|40 to 50 kg||Concentrates - 1.3–1.4 kg, potatoes - 4.0–4.5 kg. A portion of hay flour should be increased by 100 g, salt should be 20 g, chalk - 8 g, animal feed - the norm is unchanged.|
|50 to 60 kg||The dose of concentrates, hay flour, animal feed does not change, the rate of vegetables increases by 0.5 kg. To a portion of salt add 2 g, and chalk - 1 g.|
|60 to 70 kg||Concentrates - 1.4–1.5 kg, vegetables - 5–6 kg, up to 0.5 kg of hay flour, 25 g of salt, 10 g of chalk. Animal feed - 150-200 g.|
|70 to 80 kg||1.5–1.7 kg of concentrates, 6–8 kg of potatoes, 0.5 kg of hay flour, 32 g of salt, 12 g of chalk, 100–150 g of animal feed.|
|80 to 90 kg||1.6–1.8 kg of concentrated food, 7–9 kg of vegetables, up to 600 g of hay flour, 150–200 g of animal feed, salt - 32 g, chalk - 20 g.|
|90 to 110 kg||Up to 2 kg of concentrates, 8-10 kg of vegetables, up to 700 g of hay flour, a portion of salt increases to 35 g, and chalk - up to 25.|
Video: weight of pigs in half a year
In order to improve metabolic processes, the growth and development of animals, normalize daily growth, protect pets from diseases and increase immunity, food additives are introduced into their food:
- When fatty pigs are fed, Amilosubtilin GZH is used as an additive, which accelerates the deposition of fat, and also helps to reduce feed consumption by 12%.
- Improving the quality and increasing the number of pig products will help the introduction of ethonia in the diet. It is recommended to add 0.5 mg of the drug per 1 kg of animal weight per day.
- Growth stimulation is carried out with the introduction of water-soluble acids and betazine in the diet.
- Better to digest food for your pets will help monosodium glutamate.
- Azobacterin supplies the pig’s body with nitrogen and vitamin B12.
Important! As an additive to the main diet, feed is used as a source of missing nutrients. In addition, the pig should consume up to 6-7 liters of fluid.
Features of the content of fattening piglets
In order to get enough meat and fat from the livestock, pigs need not only high-quality feed, but also provide them with quality care.Piglets should be kept in dry, spacious rooms (at least 4 m² per animal), the air temperature in which ranges from 18–20 ºС.Drafts are not allowed. The room should be well lit and well ventilated regularly. It is advisable to install a pipe for drawing. Near the pigsty it is necessary to equip a walking enclosure in which animals will spend most of the time in the warm period. Every day you need to clean the feeders from the remnants of food.
Did you know? The pig’s heart valve is suitable for humans and can be used during transplant operations.
A pig must have constant access to fresh, clean water. As you can see, fattening pigs is a rather troublesome affair. However, all your efforts will be rewarded, because as a result you will not only provide yourself and your family with delicious meat and lard, but also receive additional income from the sale of pig products.