Kalmyk breed of cows: description, care and feeding
Kalmyk breed is today considered the best of domestic breeds of meat for purposes. The selection of a unique breed that was once brought up by nomadic tribes was affected by the harsh habitat and lifestyle of the Kalmyks themselves. At the same time, the key factor in the formation of the breed was strict natural selection. And what happened as a result, and how to care for Kalmyk cows, we will tell further.
Did you know? Cows are able to sense the magnetic field of the globe and always feed their torso along its lines of force during feeding.
There is an interesting theory about the origin of the Kalmyk breed - Kalmyks from the Mongolian territories brought it to European territory. There is an assumption that the ancestors of the “Kalmyks” are Indian sacred cows, which have become popular among many peoples of Asia. The breed is valued for its generous productive qualities.
According to external data, Kalmyks differ from European breeds. In more detail the characteristics of these animals will present the following table.
|Body type||Powerful, short, large|
|Suit||Mostly red, red and brown, but red-white is found. Mostly white spots are located on the head and legs, very rarely on the body|
|Horns||Thick, strong, in the form of a semicircle|
|Wool||Thick, consists of long topcoat and thick undercoat|
|Chest||Wide (up to 45 cm), deep (up to 70 cm)|
|Back||Smooth, sacrum slightly down|
|Head||Small, narrow, front part elongated, with a concave frontal part and a humpback nose|
|Legs||Strong, straight, proportional, widely set|
|Udder||Small, poorly developed|
|Height at the withers||128-140 cm|
|Torso length||140–160 cm|
|Distinctive feature||Occipital crest|
Advantages and disadvantages
Kalmyk breed is endowed with undeniable advantages:
- endurance (even calving takes place without the help of a person);
- unpretentiousness in the content;
- undemanding (good results are obtained even with a rather meager diet);
- resistance to low temperatures;
- fast weight gain;
- high meat yield and excellent taste;
- good survival of young animals;
- high fat content of milk.
Did you know? On average, a cow produces about 200 thousand glasses of milk during its life. A herd of cows "releases" a ton of milk per day.
The disadvantages of the breed include aggressiveness and extreme maternal instinct. If the calf has a calf, she will not let anyone close, even the owner.
Maintenance and care
"Kalmychki" are unpretentious to the conditions of detention. They perfectly endure long hauls without losing their productivity. All that is required from the breeder is a clean barn, drinking water and the necessary vaccinations.
In the summer period, “Kalmyks” must be kept in free-range enclosures. And best of all - grazing. Often, cattle farmers, keeping cows in the open, equip the site with an awning that protects animals from rainfall and the scorching sun.
Arrangement of a barn
A separate stall is organized for each cow. In addition, in the center of the barn it is necessary to arrange a free paddock in which the calves will be fed, and in the far corner - to provide a sheltered place for calving, where the cow will be placed a week before birth. It is not necessary to warm the room: even if the temperature drops below -40 ° C, the Kalmyks can tolerate this well. The only thing that can be done is a flooring made of straw or similar material.Ideally, each cow should have its own feeder and drinker - this separation allows you to protect the herd from the spread of infections.One feeder should be roomy to last 7-8 kg of feed. Individual feeders are made of boards, and drinking bowls are made of stainless steel. At the same time, the height of each feed tank should be 60–65 cm, width - 70–80 cm, and length - 1–1.3 m. The feeders are located near the stall.
Conditions of detention
For the effective cultivation of Kalmyk cows, it is advisable for them to organize a spacious light barn. Indoors, both artificial and natural lighting must be present, large windows are welcome.
The ventilation system is also important: stagnation of air in the barn negatively affects the health status of its inhabitants. In this case, it is not advisable to arrange drafts, for which the cracks should be closed. Animals tolerate both low temperatures at -40 ° C, and high, up to + 45 ° C. Therefore, they can be bred in almost all regions.
Regular cleaning of the stall and equipment
In the warmer months, when the herd is mostly on the walk, the barn can be cleaned once a week. In winter, cleaning should be arranged more often, since waste products, accumulating, negatively affect the condition of cows. Manure alone is not enough; Feeders, drinking bowls and bedding need to be put in order:
- sometimes the flooring has to be changed daily, but more often - once every few days, as it becomes soiled;
- disinfection of feeders is carried out every month, and drinking bowls are cleaned even more often so as to prevent water blooming;
- complete disinfection of the premises should be undertaken several times a year.
What to feed
“Kalmychki” easily adapt to any type of feeding. The main part of the diet should be: hay, silage, fresh grass. At the same time, an increase in feed volume does not lead to an increase in milk yield, but it contributes to the growth of live weight.
Summer grazing in the pasture
The well-developed digestive system of the representatives of the Kalmyk breed allows them to consume an impressive amount of grass feed. From April to June, the best pastures will be cereal, feather grass and fescue fields.
Important! It is not recommended to leave animals on one pasture longer than 7-9 days. You can return to one field only after 1-1.5 months.
Winter Feeding Diet
In cold weather, the main diet is straw (not less than 60% of the total). To dry grass absorbed better, it must be given in a dispersed form, mixed with concentrates.
The approximate ratio of feed in winter is as follows:
- roughage - 45%;
- silo (prepared from stalks of corn and herbs) - 25%;
- concentrated feed - 30%.
To maintain the balance of sugar and protein, feed with fast carbohydrates (beets, etc.) is introduced into the diet. About 55 quintals of feed per head are consumed per year.
The only thing that is important to take care of is drinking. Cows are watered 3-4 times a day.
In this case, the norm is calculated by the weight of the animals:
- up to 250 kg - 4 buckets with a volume of 10 liters;
- up to 350 kg - 5 ten-liter buckets;
- more than 350 kg - 6 buckets with a volume of 10 liters.
The subtleties of breeding young animals
The maturity of cows occurs at 1.5 years and lasts up to 15 years. Cows are allowed to mate when gaining weight 3–3.2 centners. Females spend all milk during lactation on feeding calves, which are next to their mothers at this time. The cow is fed for 8 months.
Important! The best time for calving is January-April.
It is better to organize a case from April to mid-summer.At the same time, it is recommended to use free mating: in a random period, several manufacturing bulls are launched into a herd of cows.
The duration of gestation of calves depends not only on the breed, but also on the age of the animal. Conditions may also be affected by conditions of detention and diet. And, if on average the pregnancy in cows lasts 285 days, then in the Kalmyk breed this period is 300 days.
Cows deliver well and complications are rare. The first hour after birth, the calf should taste the maternal colostrum, which will help start the immune system. Up to 12 weeks, mother's milk will be the main diet.From the third week after birth, calves can be accustomed to hay. If by the age of six months the calf is gaining 200 kg, it can already be weaned from the cow. Such a measure will allow the mother to recover faster and resume her reproductive functions.
If young animals appeared in the autumn-winter period, they will excommunicate them from their mother in the fall in order to have time to prepare the calves for wintering and to accustom their digestive system to plant foods. Calves along with adult animals have good immunity and do not need special care.
Important! Young calves must be additionally provided with calcium and fluorine (3 and 5 g per day, respectively).
After the calf is separated from the mother, they are given juicy and roughage, and later concentrates. An approximate feeding scheme for young animals can be represented as follows.
|Bean hay, kg||1||1|
|Cereal hay, kg||2,7||3,5|
|Corn silage, kg||8||10|
|Table salt, g||45||50|
|Feed phosphate, g||35||45|